Saturday, September 17, 2022

Black Holes May Be Covered in Vortex Structures According to New Study

John Coffey:
Anything that approaches infinity tends to be a problem scientifically and maybe mathematically.  I have long suspected that matter might have a maximum density, making Black Holes not a point with infinite density but a tiny sphere.  It seems plausible since our mathematics tends to break down when discussing singularities.

Perhaps Black Holes could spin so much, or have a high enough energy that these would counter the collapse?  Maybe the time dilation becomes so great that it never becomes a point?

I am wondering if this is something that can be proved one way or the other using observations?

It might become 'solid' at the point where the gluons are pressed into the quarks, shoving all these particles into a TRUE solid, where the particles are totally crushed together and no space at all remains.  I don't believe we could simulate that, because the energy required to compress quarks and gluons in such a way would be beyond our capacity to generate.

John Coffey:
 @Alondro77  We know that subatomic particles are fluctuations in Quantum Fields.  Although we haven't defined a limit to the amount of energy that a Quantum Field can have at any particular point, it seems to me that there could be a limit where either it is not possible, or the field breaks, or it changes into something else.  
I don't think that we know what the fields are made of and probably will never know, but there might be properties at higher energy levels or densities that we will never be able to test.

Friday, September 16, 2022

🔢 How to count to 10 in Latin

I find this interesting because the numbers 1 to 6 are close to Spanish numbers.

The numbers 7 to 10 resemble our months 9 to 12.  This made me speculate that maybe the ancient Romans only had a 10-month calendar, although this was cited only in legend and the Roman Republic adopted a different 12.5-month calendar.  Later reforms would be done by Julius Ceaser and August Ceasar, from whose names we get July and August.

Thursday, September 15, 2022

Re: Watch "You're Immortal And I Can Prove It" on YouTube

I like the video.  It doesn't teach me anything new, but he makes entertaining videos.

On Wed, Sep 14, 2022 at 11:34 PM Albert wrote:
A "Thoughty" video.

Sunday, August 21, 2022

Effect of mRNA Vaccine Boosters against SARS-CoV-2 Omicron Infection in Qatar | NEJM

Compared to the primary series, booster effectiveness against symptomatic omicron infection was 49.4%, with the primary series 76.5%.

Study shows probability of getting COVID for mask wearers vs. non-mask wearers

In the healthcare setting, 9% of the mask wearers and 33% of the non-mask wearers tested COVID-19 positive. 

 Additionally, in community settings, the team noted that 6% of mask wearers and 83% of non-maks wearers tested SARS-CoV-2 positive.

Monday, August 15, 2022

A brief history of humanity

 In the year 1800, about 90% of the United States population was needed to produce enough food through farming.  In the early 1900s, it was about 35% and in the year 2000 it was 3%.  Six decades ago when I was very young, farmers were held with some regard.  These people worked the land to produce the food that we need.  Today, farmers are considered rednecks.  It is not too surprising that many early cartoons from almost a hundred years ago mostly took place on farms involving farm animals.  In the 1960s there were many popular TV shows nostalgic for a more rural time, perhaps a simpler time compared to life in the big city, such as The Andy Griffith Show, Mayberry RFD, The Beverly Hillbillies, Green Acres, Petticoat Junction, and The Real McCoys.  By 1972 all these shows were obsolete and canceled.

The Earth has been cooling down for about 50 million years.  For at least 40 million years the atmospheric CO2 level has been in steady decline.  The two go hand in hand since the temperature affects the vapor pressure of CO2 on the surface of the ocean.  As it gets colder, the oceans absorb more CO2.  Calcifying marine organisms learned to take calcium carbonate, which is made from calcium and CO2, and turn it into shells, which later get sequestered as limestone.  This is where the CO2 has been going.

Climate change over the last 9 million years affected human evolution, forcing arboreal apes to come down from the trees and cross on foot the newly formed grasslands to find food.   We entered the Pleistocene ice age about 2.5 million years ago which continues to the present because we still have ice at the poles.  Also around 2.5 million years ago, in eastern Africa, a half-ape early human named Homo Habilis, meaning "Handy Man",  learned how to make a stone hand ax.   This remained the highest level of human technology until about 50,000 years ago.  It is thought that early humans engaged in persistence hunting, where the human ability to sweat allowed them to chase an animal in the hot sun for a couple of hours until it collapsed from heat stroke.  Then they could kill it with their stone ax and have a meal for their tribe.  However, 50,000 years ago mass glaciation in Europe caused Africa to dry up.  What was left of the human race was about 7,000 humans living on the southern coast of Africa.  For the first time, they learned how to build permanent dwellings, much better tools and weapons, and how to fish.  This was the beginning of the Upper Paeleolitch Period or the third stone age. 

For about 90,000 years we had mass glaciation across the northern hemisphere.  Due to changes in the Earth's orbit, in what are called the Malankovich Cycles, we get a warm period roughly every 100,000 years, and the last one started about 10,000 BC.  We are currently in the year 12,022 in what some people call the Human Period.  This was the beginning of the Neolithic Period or "new stone age."  It is no coincidence that all of human civilization arose during this brief warm period.  The Fertile Crescent, a region that follows the Nile River and extends over to Iraq, blossomed with grains even more so than today, and humans learned how to make use of those grains.  Roughly 12,000 years ago humans learned how to make bread.  Roughly 500 years later they learned how to make beer, and the world would be forever changed.

The Sumerian Kingdom, which started around 4100 BC in Iraq between the Tigres and Euphrates rivers, invented farming, although roughly about the same time that it got started along the Nile River.  They also invented civilization, writing, clay pottery, and money.  Although called a Kingdom, it was more like a collection of powerful city-states, which is how most power structures worked in the ancient world.  They persisted for an amazing 2,400 years until they were overthrown in 1,700 B.C. by roaming nomads called the Amorites, who built a new powerful city-state called Babylon.

The era of the Pharaohs started around 3100 BC when the northern and southern kingdoms along the Nile were united by force.  They would be conquered by Rome in 30 BC.  

The Egyptians were expert beer makers, and beer was a regular part of their diet. The pyramids were built by workers who were paid in beer.  For a day's labor, they were given a clay chip worth a gallon of beer.  The chip could be exchanged for other goods.

Rome was founded in 753 BC, and it was such a powerful city-state that it would conquer most of Europe, but it would be conquered in 476 AD by the Barbarians, which were groups of Germanic tribes.  This period is referred to as Ancient Antiquity, where Rome was the military power, but Greece was the intellectual center of the world. 

Roman militarism was brutal, often killing or enslaving the people they conquered.  Sometimes soldiers would be rewarded with land from the conquered territories because most people survived by farming.  Around 146 BC, in the Third Punic War with Carthage, a city-state of a million people in ancient Tunesia, the Romans killed 750,000 people and burned the city to the ground.

The fall of the Roam Empire lead to the dark ages that lasted 900 years until the 1400s.  The Christian religion dominated Europe and took a negative view of science.  Much of the old manuscripts by the Greek Philosophers had been lost until some of them were rediscovered and printed thanks to the invention of the printing press.  This helped lead to a more enlightened era.

During the middle ages, Italy continued to be a few powerful city-states constantly at war with each other.  The country wasn't united until 1861.

How a Day at the Beach Killed 230,000 People in a Matter of Hours

Thursday, July 14, 2022

Spinal cord repair

Eventually, this may be very useful.

---------- Forwarded message ---------
From: Larry 

A drug under investigation as a cancer treatment has shown exciting promise in a rather different branch of medical research, with scientists demonstrating how it can promote nerve repair following spinal injury. The breakthrough shows how the drug acts on a DNA damage response mechanism at play in both these unrelated conditions, and triggers a "remarkable" recovery in mice with injured spinal cords.

Monday, July 11, 2022

Watch "Science Proves What We Suspected Was True About Them" on YouTube

It is easy to say that something is wrong with the Political Left if they don't have the same level of disgust that we do, but what if that were the norm?   My tendency toward disgust is pretty high, which is probably why I am the way I am.  However, I might be the abnormal one.

I think that there is a big range of human tendencies.  Everyone feels a little bit of anxiety, depression, fear, neuroticism, and compulsiveness.  It is when one of these normal human traits becomes exaggerated to the point of being a problem that it becomes a mental illness.

On Sat, Jul 9, 2022 at 9:27 PM  wrote:

Science can be amazing !!!


Watch 4  min11 sec. video below until Google censorship takes it down.




From: John Coffey
Subject: Re: Watch "Science Proves What We Suspected Was True About Them" on YouTube


When I lived in Indianapolis from 1991 to 1992, I made friends with a chess player who was an extreme liberal, likely a Marxist.  He said that he had a very permissive father whereas I had a very restrictive father.  So I valued freedom and he valued government control.


On Fri, Jul 8, 2022 at 11:30 AM Albert  wrote:

Scientist say a brain scan can reveal whether you are a liberal or a conservative. I'm not sure how they tell if you're a libertarian. Lol



Thursday, July 7, 2022

What the BA.5 Subvariant Could Mean for the United States - The New York Times

The most transmissible variant yet of the coronavirus is threatening a fresh wave of infections in the United States, even among those who have recovered from the virus fairly recently.

The subvariant of Omicron known as BA.5 is now dominant, according to federal estimates released Tuesday, and together with BA.4, another subvariant, it is fueling an outbreak of cases and hospitalizations.

"I think there's an underappreciation of what it's going to do to the country, and it already is exerting its effect," said Eric Topol, a professor of molecular medicine at Scripps Research, who has written about the subvariant.

BA.5 and BA.4, both subvariants of the Omicron variant that swept the world during the winter, are the most capable versions of the virus yet at evading immunity from previous infections and vaccines. Both variants have mutations in their spike proteins that are different enough from earlier versions of the virus that they are able to dodge some antibodies.

Waves of infection — and the subsequent immunity that comes with them — vary across countries and make for imperfect comparisons. Vaccination rates also vary. But in places where BA.4 and BA.5 have been dominant for weeks or months, the subvariants have caused increases in cases and hospitalizations, despite some population immunity from previous waves

BA.5 causes more severe disease

Wednesday, July 6, 2022

Science and human progress

There is very little that we don't currently understand about the laws of physics.  The so-called "Standard Model" can explain almost everything.  I have to admire the brilliance of the people who figured this stuff out because to understand anything more than in general terms requires very many pages of high-level mathematics.

It is not perfect.  Both the Theory of Relativity and Quantum Physics are incomplete theories.  They don't agree perfectly with each other and they can't explain what happened during the first nanosecond of the Big Bang.  We would need a Quantum Theory of Gravity that we don't have yet.  We don't know yet what Dark Matter and Dark Energy are, although we have some theories.

Some things we might never know.  Subatomic particles behave like waves on a vast ocean.  We may never know what the ocean is made of because it sits beneath our reality.  It is likely beyond our reach.  

But in terms of what makes spaceships travel the path they do, how computers compute, and why socks stick to your clothes when you take them out of the dryer, we understand all that stuff perfectly.  

So besides cosmology and particle physics, what is left to discover?   

1.  We will never have faster than light travel.  It would be a miracle and a monumental and dangerous undertaking if we could reach 10% the speed of light.   Even 1% of the speed of light would be amazing.

2. Our computing technology will soon run into physical limitations where we just can't make the circuits any smaller.  The next step would be light-based circuitry, but the technology is not yet even close.  People make pie-in-the-sky claims about Quantum computers that are a very long way off.  So it seems likely that the advancement in computer technology will slow down in about a decade.  Maybe the next big breakthrough would come from software.

3.  For seventy years people have been predicting that nuclear fusion power is just 30 years away.  They said the same thing 30 years ago.  It turns out that nuclear fusion power is very hard to do and only remotely possible on a massive scale requiring at least billions of dollars to build.  We should have it by the year 2100, which is a good thing because we are going to start running out of some fossil fuels long before then.  We need more nuclear fission plans, and we are predicted to get more in about a decade, but it would be difficult to build enough to power the world.

4.  Renewables are going to be somewhat of a bust.  They are useful on a limited scale, but they require too much land and too much raw material and resources to power the world.

5.  We are seeing advances in nanomaterials that could change the world.  The first graphene batteries are being developed.  This could have a major impact on electric vehicles.

6.  I think that we will see huge advances in biotechnology, not only in our understanding of biology and medicine but in the ability to manipulate genetic code for useful purposes.  We could program microbes to make medicines and materials that we need.  We might be able to cure diseases, improve our health, and increase our lifespans.  Biotechnology could be the next big thing.


Tuesday, June 21, 2022

What the HECK is Time?! (in Einstein’s Relativity)

I still have some problems with the concept of "spacetime".  It seems to conflate two things that aren't the same.  The problem with "spacetime" is that they sometimes make weird statements about extreme events, like saying that before the Big Bang there was no time, or that beneath the event horizon in a Black Hole that time flows toward the singularity.  Scientists say that the Theory of Relativity breaks down in extreme events and is most certainly not a complete theory.

There is an alternate theory about Black Holes which states that they aren't infinitely dense.  There could be a finite limit to density.  There is also a much more fringe and probably not true theory that states that Black Holes are just super massive neutron stars.

If we accept that gravity can attract light then this explains gravitational lensing.

If we accept that there is a cosmic speed limit then this explains time dilation.

"Spacetime" is a model that explains both these things.  When they say that space is curved, they really mean that spacetime is curved.  This concept confused me for a long time.

In my mind, this doesn't rule out the possibility of another model.   "All models are wrong.  Some models are useful."

Lithium is dangerous

March 4 2022 Moon Crash - view from different location

I think that this is fake, but a scenario like this is definitely possible. History has recorded people seeing a fire on the moon from an apparent meteor strike. I have heard about a strike that was more recent.

A few years ago an asteroid exploded over Russian with the force of a powerful nuclear weapon.

Best wishes,

John Coffey

Saturday, June 18, 2022

The actual science of the "industrial seed oil" panic

I get frustrated with all the contradictory health information we hear regularly.  This video does a good job of talking about the science and the arguments on both sides.


I get annoyed when I hear people say, as they often do, "There is no gravity in space."

There is gravity everywhere.  Some places much more than others.   A ship in orbit is using centrifugal force to counteract the pull of Earth's gravity.  Technically, it is in constant freefall.


Tuesday, May 31, 2022

Quantum Field Theory: What is a particle?

I was hoping for some deep explanation.  What I got instead was 35 minutes of math that was over my head.  I actually had fun trying to keep up with the math.  I have never studied differential equations but watching the video was giving me some idea of what they may be about.  While the math was too deep for me, I sort of understood what was going on.

This is interesting because it shows how deep physics can get.

After 35 minutes of extremely deep math, he comes to a simple conclusion that I already knew.

Physics is one of my favorite subjects because everything that exists boils down to physics.

What does a nuclear bomb sound like?

Saturday, May 28, 2022

Fwd: Calcium is crazy

This is interesting science.

I consume calcium carbonate on a regular basis.  I did not know that calcium is a metal, but I did know that it is pretty reactive.  So is sodium.

Friday, May 27, 2022

Vaccine Lies?


On Fri, May 27, 2022 at 10:34 AM Albert wrote:
The lies about Covid vaccine keep co I got. I think there is no end to it.

---------- Forwarded message ---------
From: John Coffey <>
To: Albert

What lies do you think are being told?  The vaccines were very effective against the original variant and became less effective as the virus evolved.  This was expected.

Being vaccinated produces much better results than not being vaccinated.

"The age-standardized IRR for cases in unvaccinated versus fully vaccinated persons was 13.9 during April–May and progressively declined to 8.7 during June, 5.1 during July–November, and 3.1 during December, coinciding with the periods of Delta emergence, Delta predominance, and Omicron emergence, respectively. This decline suggests a change in crude VE for infection from 93% during April–May, to 89% during June, 80% during July–November, and to 68% during December. Age-standardized IRRs for deaths among unvaccinated versus fully vaccinated persons were relatively stable; crude VE for deaths was 95% during April–May, 94% during June, and 94% during July–November.

Rates of COVID-19 cases were lowest among fully vaccinated persons with a booster dose, compared with fully vaccinated persons without a booster dose, and much lower than rates among unvaccinated persons during October–November (25.0, 87.7, and 347.8 per 100,000 population, respectively) and December 2021 (148.6, 254.8, and 725.6 per 100,000 population, respectively) (Table 2)."

Wednesday, May 25, 2022

What is Quantum Mechanics Really Trying to Tell us about Reality? Featuring @Sabine Hossenfelder

The problem is that subatomic particles are fuzzy, act randomly, and behave like waves while moving.  Even whole atoms can behave this way.

Quantum Physics was invented to explain the double-slit experiment., which is shown here ...

The "Copenhagen Interpretation" states that a particle traveling through space is not really a particle but a probability wave called a Psi wave.  However, once we measure the particle then the Psi wave "collapses" down to a real particle.  We can't predict the location, but measurement affects the outcome.  This is completely counterintuitive.  

Einstein hated this theory, didn't like randomness, and believed that there are "hidden variables" that we can't yet measure.

I don't pretend to understand the following...

I tend to agree with Einstein.

One counter-theory that I like is called the Pilot Wave Theory which says a particle is always a particle, but its motion through space creates waves in space that we can't detect that in turn cause the particle to behave like a wave. Maybe the particle is like a beach ball riding an ocean wave.  There is no practical way to distinguish this theory from the Copenhagen Interpretation, so the theory is not very popular.

I am wondering if the problem is that we don't properly understand motion?  Our everyday experiences at the macro level don't apply at the quantum level.  Maybe there is a field that affects motion?

I view all of reality as a great invisible ocean.  If the ocean is bobbing up and down, the energy at that location causes a particle to exist at that location.  If the ocean is quiet then there is no particle there.  This is Quantum Field Theory.

A "field" just means that every point in space has a value, positive, negative, or zero.  The value represents the amount of energy at a particular point.   A sufficiently high value in the field causes a particle to exist there.  If the value is too low then there is no particle.   These fields seem to have random fluctuations because "virtual particles" pop into existence all the time and then immediately disappear.  This can be proven experimentally.

There is an electric field, an electromagnetic field, a gravitational field, a Higgs field, and fields for up and down quarks.  Disregarding different types of "exotic" matter, which have their own fields but decay quickly, these fields control all of reality.  

Monday, May 16, 2022

The dangers of the COVID-19 spike protein

The dangers of the spike protein.

"SARS-CoV-2 Spike Proteins Disrupt the Blood-Brain Barrier, Potentially Raising Risk of Neurological Damage in COVID-19 Patients"

"Recent publications provide new findings that may help decipher the pathogenesis of long-COVID. One paper reported perivascular inflammation in brains of deceased patients with COVID-19, while others showed that the spike protein could damage the endothelium in an animal model, that it could disrupt an in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and that it can cross the BBB resulting in perivascular inflammation. Moreover, the spike protein appears to share antigenic epitopes with human molecular chaperons resulting in autoimmunity and can activate toll-like receptors (TLRs), leading to release of inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, some antibodies produced against the spike protein may not be neutralizing, but may change its conformation rendering it more likely to bind to its receptor. As a result, one wonders whether the spike protein entering the brain or being expressed by brain cells could activate microglia, alone or together with inflammatory cytokines, since protective antibodies could not cross the BBB, leading to neuro-inflammation and contributing to long-COVID. Hence, there is urgent need to better understand the neurotoxic effects of the spike protein."

"A lot of people think of it as a respiratory disease, but it's really a vascular disease," says Assistant Research Professor Uri Manor, who is co-senior author of the study. "That could explain why some people have strokes, and why some people have issues in other parts of the body. The commonality between them is that they all have vascular underpinnings."

"If you remove the replicating capabilities of the virus, it still has a major damaging effect on the vascular cells, simply by virtue of its ability to bind to this ACE2 receptor, the S protein receptor, now famous thanks to COVID,"

COVID-19 spike proteins may cause neurological issues

"Researchers from the University of Bristol have found that, in cells in a dish in the lab, the spike protein binds to cells called pericytes which line the small vessels of the heart. This binding triggers a cascade of changes which disrupt normal cell function, and can lead to the release of chemicals that cause inflammation. This happened even when the protein was no longer attached to the virus.

There is some previous evidence to suggest that following Covid-19 illness, the spike protein can remain in the bloodstream after the virus has gone and travel far from the site of infection. This research could help explain and ultimately treat some of the effects of severe Covid-19 infection, where levels of the virus are particularly high. "

 "while other papers showed that the spike protein by itself (without being part of the corona virus) can damage endothelial cells and disrupt the blood-brain barrier. These findings may be even more relevant to the pathogenesis of long-COVID syndrome that may affect as many as 50% of those infected with SARS-CoV-2. "

"Very recently, Tavassoly et al. proposed a view that seeded protein aggregation by SARS-CoV-2 could be attributed to long-term post-infection complications including neurodegeneration [4]. They suggested that SARS-CoV-2 spike protein S1 region binds to heparin and heparin binding proteins (HBPs) present in brain which are prone to self-assembly, aggregation, and fibrillation processes. They also showed that the peptide from S protein (S–CoV-peptide; ∼150 aa) has more aggregation formation propensity than the known aggregation-prone proteins, suggesting that this peptide is prone to act as functional amyloid and form toxic aggregates. Thus, the heparin binding and aggregation propensity of S1 protein has been suggested the ability of S1 to form amyloid and toxic aggregates that can act as seeds to aggregate many of the misfolded brain proteins and can ultimately leads to neurodegeneration. It has been suggested that SARS-CoV-2 infection invades the CNS by controlling protein synthesis machinery, disturbs endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial function and increases the accumulation of misfolded proteins, thereby activates protein aggregation, mitochondrial oxidative stress, apoptosis and neurodegeneration [3,5,10].

Interestingly, it has been shown that HSV-1 spike protein binds to heparin and increases the aggregation of amyloid β (Aβ42) peptides on its surface spikes [11]. This study suggests that the heparin-binding site of the spike protein might act as a binding site for Aβ42 peptides and thus could dock to the viral surface and catalyze aggregation of Aβ42. As the receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2, which is located within the S1 subunit of spike glycoprotein has several heparin binding sites [[12], [13], [14]], the same mechanism of aggregation of neurodegeneration causing proteins such as Aβ, α-synuclein, tau, prions, and TDP-43 can be observed in COVID-19 infection in the brain."

The vaccine spike protein is different.

In actual fact, the two spike proteins behave very differently in the body. According to Health Feedback, the spike proteins generated by Covid-19 vaccines differ in three key ways to those attached to SARS-CoV-2. Firstly, in the case of the vaccines, the cells mostly break down the spike proteins into fragments. Secondly, the spike protein generated by a Covid-19 vaccine doesn't assemble into new viral particles, unlike the spike protein from SARS-CoV-2. Thirdly, the spike protein in Covid-19 vaccines is genetically modified to enhance the immune response and to stop it binding to cell receptors in the same way the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein would.


'Toxic' spike protein claims misinterpret vaccine study

"There is no spike protein in the vaccines first of all. The amounts that are made after the mRNA is injected are very small and it almost exclusively stays locally. It is nowhere near the amount he was talking about," Dr Ratner said.

US fact checking website Health Feedback, which uses experts to verify claims about health science, said Dr Bridle's statement "rests on the assumption that if the viral spike protein causes cardiovascular toxicity in COVID-19 patients, the spike protein produced in vaccinated people should be toxic as well".

However, Health Feedback said this assumption was incorrect: "While both mRNA vaccines and viral vector vaccines carry the instructions to produce the entire spike protein, the cells break down much of the protein into small fragments. Furthermore, unlike infection, the spike protein from COVID-19 vaccination doesn't get assembled into new viral particles."

Prof Munro told AAP FactCheck that mRNA vaccines were "proving to be incredibly effective and safe" in protecting both the recipients and others from COVID-19, backing up clinical trials which "consistently demonstrated an excellent safety profile".

Will spike proteins generated through COVID vaccines cause illnesses to spread in schools?

"Vaccine skeptics have seized on the study to cast doubt on the safety of vaccines. But a review of the study's findings shows that the concerns raised by vaccine doubters are much ado about nothing.

The Study

The vascular endothelium is an important player in the illness and death associated with COVID-19. The endothelium is a system of cells that line and protect the inside of blood vessels. SARS-CoV2 injures the endothelium leading to blood clots, heart attack, pulmonary embolism, and stroke. Despite the established link between COVID-19 and these cardiovascular complications, the mechanism by which they develop is unknown.

Researchers from Jiaotong University; the University of California, San Diego; and the Salk Institute used a pseudovirus coated with spike protein to investigate the effects of the viral protein on endothelial cells. Pseudoviruses – which were first developed over 50 years ago – contain the outer shell of the virus, but they lack the viral genes needed to reproduce.

Hamsters treated with the spike protein coated pseudovirus showed lung damage similar to that seen in humans infected with SARS-CoV2. When researchers added pseudovirus to cultured endothelial cells they found that the mitochondria inside the cells were injured. Since mitochondria are responsible for providing energy to cells, their dysfunction can cause cell death.

When isolated pulmonary arteries were exposed to the spike protein carrying pseudovirus there was some disruption in the ability of the blood vessels to dilate. The decreased ability to expand blood vessels that serve the lungs could impair the ability of the body to take up oxygen from lungs that are damaged by the virus.

The novelty of this study was the discovery that the spike protein itself causes damage, and that the pathway triggered by the spike protein could explain the widespread cardiovascular complications that develop in COVID-19 patients.

A Twisted Tale

Shortly after Lei and colleagues published their study, vaccine skeptics touted the findings as proof that newly developed COVID-19 vaccines are dangerous. Afterall, if COVID-19 vaccines produce spike protein to trigger immunity, and that same spike protein causes injury, then vaccines are really no different than the disease they are designed to prevent.

The problem with these claims is that science doesn't support their arguments.

The Long Road to Perdition....

In order to damage the endothelium of blood vessels, COVID-19 vaccines have to enter the vascular system and infect cells that circulate in the blood. Data collected by the European Medicines Agency shows that no significant amount of vaccine enters the circulation (3). The confinement of the expressed spike protein away from the circulatory system significant prevents it from causing damage to the vascular endothelium.

Redesigning the Spike Protein

The spike protein attaches SARS-CoV2 to cells through a receptor called ACE2. In order to fully interact, the spike protein must undergo a conformational change.

A research team lead by Dr. Barney Graham from the Vaccine Research Center at the NIH National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases created an engineered form of the spike protein that is unable to make the shape change required to effectively bind to cells (5). The Pfizer/BioNTech, Moderna, Novavax, and Johnson & Johnson vaccines all use this inactivated spike protein, which means any spike protein that is produced by the vaccine is not able to be activated. This safety-switch limits the ability of the spike protein to bind ACE2 and limits its ability to cause damage.

Stuck in a Hole

In addition to engineering the spike protein so it can not be fully activated the protein is tagged with an extra piece called a "transmembrane anchor" (6). The transmembrane anchor allows the spike protein to appear on the surface – or membrane – of the cell, but it is held in place by the anchor. This prevents the spike protein from drifting away and creates a fixed target for the immune system to recognize the foreign protein."

So far, there is no scientific evidence available that suggests that spike proteins created in our bodies from the COVID-19 vaccines are toxic or damaging our organs. COVID-19 vaccines are relatively new and long-term side effects are yet to be known. However, the vaccines have met the safety standards of many government and international safety agencies.

Several systems help us monitor vaccine safety. In the United States these include the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), The Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD), the Post-License Rapid Immunization Safety Monitoring (PRISM), and the Clinical Immunization Safety Assessment Project (CISA). These systems are used by scientists to monitor side effects and any other patterns of risks from vaccines.

The COVID-19 vaccine has been administered to 135 million people in the United States. As expected with any vaccine, some fully vaccinated people still got sick, hospitalized, and/or died. These "breakthrough cases" are a very small percentage of those vaccinated (<0.001%) and are being studied to detect any relevant patterns.

So far no scientific evidence is available that gives credence to claims that spike proteins created from vaccines travel in our bloodstreams. Research shows that spike proteins stay stuck to the surface of the cells around the vaccine's injection site. They are not known to wander around to other parts of the body.

A very tiny dose of the vaccine does make it to the bloodstream (about 1%), but as soon as it gets to the liver, the enzymes there destroy it completely. The U.S. CDC refers to the spike protein made from the vaccine as "harmless."

But researchers and health officials told there is no "mistake" and that there is no evidence to support Bridle's claims.

There is no evidence that the spike protein in vaccines "is toxic or that it lingers at any toxic level in the body after vaccination," an FDA spokesperson told us in an email.

Jason McLellan, a structural biologist at the University of Texas at Austin who has been studying spike proteins in other coronaviruses for years and whose work was fundamental for the development of COVID-19 vaccines, said Bridle's statements are not correct.  

"The spike protein is not pathogenic. It is not a toxin," McLellan told us in an email. "I have not seen any data to support what Bridle claims."

How long does the mRNA vaccine stay in the body?

"The Pfizer and Moderna vaccines work by introducing mRNA (messenger RNA) into your muscle cells. The cells make copies of the spike protein and the mRNA is quickly degraded (within a few days). The cell breaks the mRNA up into small harmless pieces. mRNA is very fragile; that's one reason why mRNA vaccines must be so carefully preserved at very low temperatures."

Does the COVID-19 vaccine cause Prion disease?

Safety of the COVID-19 mRNA vaccines.

"The clinical trials for the Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna vaccines found both to be safe overall. When serious side effects did occur, they happened at comparable rates between people who had received the vaccine and those who had received a placebo injection."

"Notably, the study identified 34 cases of heart inflammation in patients aged 12 to 39 years. 85% of these cases occurred in males. 82% of these people were hospitalized for a median of 1 day. The authors calculated that among patients aged 12 to 39 years, there is a slight risk of 6.3 additional myocarditis cases per million doses during the first week after vaccination.

However, a separate study recently published in the New England Journal of Medicine shows that heart inflammation events are far more likely after COVID-19 infection than vaccination."

"But because reinfection is possible and COVID-19 can cause severe medical complications, it's recommended that people who have already had COVID-19 get a COVID-19 vaccine. A recent study showed that unvaccinated people who already had COVID-19 are more than twice as likely as fully vaccinated people to be reinfected with COVID-19.

Recent research also suggests that people who got COVID-19 in 2020 and then received mRNA vaccines produce very high levels of antibodies that are likely effective against current and, possibly, future variants. Some scientists call this hybrid immunity."

Sunday, May 1, 2022

The Man Who Accidentally Killed The Most People In History

Stars in the sky

According to what I read, we can only see about 5,000 stars with the naked eye, out to a distance of only about 4,000 light-years.  That is in a galaxy with 100 to 400 billion stars and a diameter of 100,000 light-years.  

The Milky Way Galaxy is only about 1,000 light-years thick.  That seems pretty thin compared to its diameter.  So a distance of 4,000 light-years would represent a volume of 50+ billion cubic light-years for just 5,000 visible stars.  That is roughly 10 million cubic light-years per star.


Friday, April 29, 2022

The Autochrome; Color photos? Just add potatoes.

Fact-Checking this Viral Bottle Trick

A couple of decades ago there was some research into using somnolescent bubbles to try to make nuclear fusion happen.

I always assumed that there was something to this, but apparently not.  

Watch "The mathematics of weight loss | Ruben Meerman | TEDxQUT on YouTube

I was confusing this video with a similarly titled video that I saw years ago that claimed that the mathematics of weight loss was just calories out versus calories in.  Although technically true, weight loss is more complicated, with certain foods like sugar being worse than others.  Sugar actually stimulates appetite.   In addition, our gut flora send signals to our brain to stimulate our appetite for specific foods.  Those bacteria get hungry, and different bacteria prefer different types of nutrients.   Eating healthy foods adjusts your gut bacteria to that diet.

This is where probiotics might be helpful.

In addition, I just read about "obesogens", which at first sounded like a joke to me, which are chemicals in the environment that promote obesity.

In terms of the chemistry of metabolism, this video is scientifically interesting.  However, it isn't really news that we lose mass as we breathe out carbon dioxide.

On Tue, Apr 26, 2022 at 5:07 AM Albert > wrote:
Hands down the best scientific explanation of weight loss. The bottomline: eat less and move more.

Saturday, April 23, 2022

Study reveals some brain changes, even in mild COVID-19 | CIDRAP

The study authors noted that the imaging differences between the two groups were modest, at about 2% of average baseline values. The typical annual loss of gray matter each year due to aging, the researchers said, is 0.2% to 0.3%.

Cognitive tests identified differences between COVID-19 survivors and controls, including a significant increase in the time taken to complete Trails A (numeric; 7.8%) and B (alphanumeric; 12.2%) of the Trail Making Test in COVID-19 participants. These results held true when excluding the 15 hospitalized patients (Trail A, 6.5%; Trail B, 12.5%).

"The infected participants also showed on average larger cognitive decline between the two timepoints," the study authors wrote. "Importantly, these imaging and cognitive longitudinal effects were still seen after excluding the 15 cases who had been hospitalised."

Not all COVID survivors have brain changes

In addition to the modest COVID-19 effect, the study authors noted that the statistics represent an average effect, meaning that not every COVID-19 survivor will experience brain changes.

Tuesday, April 19, 2022

How Loud Can Sound Physically Get?

What If You Never Turn Off Your Computer?

Climate Change Is NOT An Emergency — Here Are The Facts

It missed us by 9 days

Fwd: Carl Sagan Predicts Our Countries Future


---------- Forwarded message ---------
From: John Coffey <>

I had seen this.  He has a point that if people don't understand science then they don't know the difference between real science and fake science.

However, most people have very little need or ability to understand science.

Back when they announced that they were going to try to find the "Higgs Boson" using the "Large Hadron Collider", the naturally curious person that I am asked the questions, "What the hell is a 'boson'?", and "What the hell is a 'hadron'?"   I have since learned enough physics to understand these concepts.  It has become a hobby of mine to study physics.  As a result, I have the kind of knowledge that 99% of the population would find useless.

Carl Sagan's show was really good.

However, I don't fully trust him as a source.  In his show, Cosmos, he said that free-market capitalism was dangerous.  He later bragged about smoking marijuana.

On Tue, Apr 19, 2022 at 5:33 AM Alber wrote:
> Carl Sagan's Warning 25 years ago : "We are up for grabs" - YouTube

Thursday, April 14, 2022

Saturday, April 9, 2022

Solving The Problem Of Human Perception | Jordan Peterson Lecture at The University of Cambridge

Jordan Peterson went through at least 18 months of suffering because of illness, so he often gets emotional in his lectures when previously he was cool as a cucumber.

He talks at such a high intellectual level that it takes effort to keep up.  He covers many topics and jumps around so much that sometimes you wonder if you are listening to a crazy person.  He does a halfway good job of tying it all together, but I feel like he could be more succinct. 

He quickly gets to the point before moving on to related topics.  Then he wraps it all together with a conclusion.

His claim is that we perceive the meaning or the utility of objects rather than just the objects.  Since we are talking about automatic mental processes, it is hard to say in what order the brain processes information.  Maybe we first recognize the object and then its function.  Maybe function is so tied to our perception that we perceive it simultaneously.  Since it is hard to know, does it really matter?

Wednesday, April 6, 2022

The Day We Almost Set the World on Fire

The Castle Bravo Disaster - A "Second Hiroshima"

Infamous Disasters: The Tacoma Narrows Bridge

How long do mRNA and spike proteins last in the body?

10 Years On Mars: Curiosity Finds Plastic Debris!

How ironic it would be if Curiosity were to find plastic on Mars not caused by humans. They say plastic can last forever. How about a billion years?

Best wishes,

John Coffey

Sunday, April 3, 2022

Little Cobra Gets Sips Of Water From A Sprite Bottle During His Rescue

It is next to impossible for me to feel compassion for a creature that is poisonous enough to kill an elephant.  It might make sense for a snake collector, but to release this monster back into the wild is to risk the lives of others. 

Saturday, April 2, 2022

Law of averages

I tend to assume that if something hasn't happened for a while that it is more likely.  This is a gambler's fallacy.  

If you roll dice a million times then the numbers that come up will resemble a bell curve with 7 being the most likely result, but past events don't predict future random events.  The law of averages works because large samples hide short-term aberrations.

The exception might be when dealing with human choices that otherwise would be random.  Some people might have tendencies to do or not do particular actions.


I'm impressed.  Railroad tracks are made from hot-rolled steel and are designed to be tough.

This type of weapon must have considerable power.  I'm thinking of the third law of motion, where every action has an equal and opposite reaction.  The weapon must be able to deal with recoil.

Best wishes,

John Coffey

Tuesday, March 29, 2022

Re: Second COVID-19 booster shot authorized for Americans 50 and older - NBC News

I may consult with my physician before I get the fourth dose.  I would like to know what the evidence is on the 4th shot?

I had the booster six months ago.  I am wondering what the ideal time frame would be for the fourth shot?

On Tue, Mar 29, 2022 at 8:30 PM Albert wrote:
You can get your 4th shot now.

Second COVID-19 booster shot authorized for Americans 50 and older - NBC News

Monday, March 28, 2022

Fwd: Shanghai

From: John Coffey 

It seems unlikely that you could suppress Omicron.  Best to let it run its course.

I'm hoping that my booster from six months ago will still protect me, but if not, I would be willing to have another booster if the evidence supports it.

On Mon, Mar 28, 2022 at 8:46 AM Larry wrote:
Shanghai a city of 26 million shuts down tunnels, bridges and highways in a covid lockdown to begin mass testing.
Oil dropped almost 3% in response.

Friday, March 25, 2022

Re: High Resolution Sun images

When I contemplate all the ways the universe can kill us, I feel that we are extremely lucky.  At any moment a gamma-ray burst could set the world ablaze, but it is not likely to happen.  We detect around 1 gamma-ray burst every day, but fortunately, the universe is vast, and most of these bursts are in other galaxies.  Some have suspected that an event like this might be responsible for one of five mass extinctions in Earth's history, but there isn't good evidence for it.

We know that at least one mass extinction was caused by an asteroid, although a massive outbreak of volcanoes at the same time was equally responsible.  In the event of a supervolcano eruption today, this would create a worldwide catastrophe.

In 1859 a Coronal Mass Ejection from the sun collided with the Earth's magnetosphere causing sparking and fires at telegraph stations.  Such an event would be much more damaging today because we are much more wired than we were then.

It turns out that in early solar system development, gas giants tend to fall into lower orbits likely displacing the smaller planets.  However, the gravitational tug of Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune kept Jupiter in place.  It is also suspected that the Earth started at a different orbit than where it ended up, where it got pulled around by the gravity of the other planets and other objects.  This is called planet migration.  The other planets still affect the Earth's orbit, in something called the Malankovich Cycles, but fortunately, the solar system long ago settled into a stable configuration.

There are likely many more rogue planets traveling between the stars than there are planets orbiting the stars, making these like gravitational missiles.  However, interstellar space is also vast.

About 4.5 billion years ago, a Mars-sized planet collided with the Earth, causing the ejection of enough material to form the Moon.

Supernovas can destroy life up to 50 light-years away. 

It is suspected that there are many black holes between the stars in our galaxy that we don't know about.

It might be that the reason why we haven't detected alien life is that the universe is a very hostile place.    

Just as a side note, in the "known space" series of science fiction novels, there were a dozen alien species living within a 60 light-year radius of Earth.  On the galactic scale, this is minuscule, but might be plausible.  I would expect to find maybe one because a sphere with a radius of 60 light-years is a pretty big volume.