Friday, December 30, 2022
Thursday, December 29, 2022
◄ AGE of UNIVERSE ► TIME in perspective ⏱️
ASTEROID IMPACT Comparison 🌑💥
Study Finds Large Gap in Excess Deaths Along Partisan Lines After COVID-19 Vaccines Introduced < Yale School of Public Health
"The gap in excess death rates between Republicans and Democrats is concentrated in counties with low vaccination rates"
Does COVID-19 vaccination cause excess deaths?
Wednesday, December 28, 2022
Tuesday, December 27, 2022
Mortality Study Reinforces Safety of COVID-19 Vaccinations | Kaiser Permanente
Scary Reports of Deaths Following COVID-19 Vaccination Aren’t What They Seem
Opponents of vaccination use the VAERS numbers in statements that suggest cause-and-effect conclusions. This misinformation then influences some people not to be vaccinated.
In this case, the numbers are correct, but the presumed conclusions are not.
Stevan Whitt, MD, an infectious disease doctor and chief medical officer at MU Health Care, gets questions about these claims regularly, and he wants people to have the right information.
"This intentional misrepresentation is a powerful tactic to sow confusion among large groups of people," Whitt said.
To address the misinformation about VAERS, the CDC shares context around adverse events associated with the COVID-19 vaccines and emphasizes that reports of deaths (and other adverse events) do not necessarily mean the vaccines are to blame. "
Frontiers | Mortality Rate and Characteristics of Deaths Following COVID-19 Vaccination
Conclusion: The benefits of COVID-19 vaccines outweigh the potential risks in older frail populations, and our findings do not support actions to exclude older adults from being vaccinated. However, continued monitoring of COVID-19 vaccination is still warranted."
Monday, December 26, 2022
What Happens to Your Body When You Eat Meat and Dairy Every Day?
Many of these studies are based on small sample sizes, and the results are often biased by numerous confounding variables. For example, it is difficult to untangle whether it is the lack of meat in a vegetarian's diet that reduces their association with poor heart health or whether it is their increased intake of vegetables.
Saturday, December 24, 2022
Friday, December 23, 2022
Could Global Warming Start A New Ice Age?
Thursday, December 22, 2022
Tuesday, December 20, 2022
Myocarditis after Covid-19 Vaccination in a Large Health Care Organization | NEJM
Incidence of Myocarditis/Pericarditis Following mRNA COVID-19 Vaccination Among Children and Younger Adults in the United States | Annals of Internal Medicine
What will the world look like in 2050?
What It's Like To be a Computer: An Interview with GPT-3
Sunday, December 18, 2022
Saturday, December 17, 2022
Friday, December 16, 2022
Thursday, December 15, 2022
Monday, December 12, 2022
Sunday, December 11, 2022
Saturday, December 10, 2022
What am I reading right now?
Friday, December 9, 2022
Thursday, December 8, 2022
Global Warming: An Inconvenient History
Wednesday, December 7, 2022
To End Climate Lunacy, Stop Treating Warming & C02 Hysterically
A warming planet saves lives. Analyses of millions of deaths in recent decades in numerous countries, published in the British medical journal The Lancet, show that cooler temperatures killed nine times (July 2021 study) to seventeen times (In May 2015 study) more people than warmer temperatures. The planet's recent modest warming (by 1.00 degree Celsius on average since 1880, as calculated by NASA) thus has been saving millions of lives.
CO2 emissions do not pollute and instead are environmentally beneficial. In 2017, over 300 scientists, including Richard Lindzen of MIT and William Happer of Princeton, signed a statement that made this point: "carbon dioxide is not a pollutant. To the contrary, there is clear evidence that increased atmospheric carbon dioxide is environmentally helpful to food crops and other plants that nourish all life. It is plant food, not poison." Every one of us, indeed, also exhales carbon dioxide with every breath.
Since 1920, deaths each year from natural disasters have decreased by over 90 percent. And this happened, data from EM-DAT - The International Disaster Database presented by The University of Oxford show, not only as the planet has warmed, but as world population has quadrupled.
Global warming has not increased hurricanes. A NOAA report, updated on November 28, 2022, states that "there is essentially no long-term trend in hurricane counts. The evidence for an upward trend is even weaker if we look at U.S. landfalling hurricanes, which even show a slight negative trend beginning from 1900 or from the late 1800s."'
Tuesday, December 6, 2022
Sunday, December 4, 2022
Drones: Crimes Against the Sky
Saturday, December 3, 2022
"We May Have A Problem Here" | CoD: Modern Warfare 2 Remastered
The blast spreads too fast. BTW, if the blast is in a vacuum then there is no blast wave.
Sunday, November 27, 2022
Friday, November 25, 2022
Thursday, November 24, 2022
Wednesday, November 23, 2022
Tuesday, November 22, 2022
Saturday, November 19, 2022
Saturday, November 12, 2022
The Quantum Hype Bubble Is About To Burst
Tuesday, November 8, 2022
Saturday, November 5, 2022
This might be my hottest take
Friday, November 4, 2022
Wednesday, November 2, 2022
Tuesday, November 1, 2022
Friday, October 28, 2022
The Day After Trinity (1981)
Tuesday, October 25, 2022
Thursday, October 20, 2022
Wednesday, October 19, 2022
House Has a Stalker | House M.D.
Tuesday, October 18, 2022
A normal and terrifying thing about chemistry
Sunday, October 16, 2022
Predictions for the year 2122
"I suggest a picture of this world a hundred years hence, and venture as my first guess that the world at that time would be remarkable to one of our ghosts, not so much because it was so different as because it was so similar. In the main, the changes which we may expect must be brought about by science."
"It is easier to bring about a revolutionary scientific discovery such as that of the X-ray than to alter in the least degree the quality of emotion that arises between a man and a maid. There will probably be many new rays in 2022, but the people whom they illumine will be much the same... I am convinced that in 2022 the advancement of science will be amazing, but it will be nothing like so amazing as is the present day in relation to a hundred years ago. A sight of the world today would surprise President Jefferson much more, I suspect, than the world of 2022 would surprise the little girl who sells candies at Grand Central Station. For Jefferson knew nothing of railroads, telegraphs, telephones, automobiles, aeroplanes, gramophones, movies, radium, etc.;"
To follow up on the predictions made by W. L. George, I am going to make an educated guess as to what things might be like in the year 2122. The problem is that it is not hard to see where trends will take us over the next 50 years, or to a much lesser extent to the year 2100, but new trends will emerge that we cannot predict, making any prediction about the year 2122 far from complete.
For example, George knew nothing of computers, the Internet, and how they would change the world. He knew nothing about television, but he did imply that new communication methods would be possible.
Unlike the prediction made by George about the year 2022, technological change will accelerate over the next hundred years to such an extent that our ghosts might find the world unrecognizable a hundred years hence. Within 50 years machines will be smarter than people, but even before then, they will help us develop new technologies at a faster pace. We will see huge advances in material science, medical technologies, energy, and anything digital. Medical technology will improve our health, our mental state, and our abilities. It is very likely that in the year 2122, people will age very slowly or not at all.
All transportation will be automated. Airplanes will not need pilots. Cars, trucks, trains, and ships will not need drivers. A driver's license will be a thing of the past.
Unfortunately, most jobs will also be automated, with a fraction of the population supervising the machines that do all the work. Society will have to be reorganized, with many people not being able to obtain work. This could create great political turmoil, along with booms and busts and financial collapses, causing a few nations to fall apart and reorganize into something else.
War will not go away, but it will be mostly carried out by machines. It is very likely that nuclear weapons will be used over the next century, with devasting consequences over large areas, which will greatly increase the need for defensive systems.
Most fossil fuels will be gone by the year 2122. The future will depend upon whether we can develop nuclear fusion, which is likely. If so, we will have abundant relatively-clean energy, although not necessarily cheap at first. If we can't develop cost-effective nuclear fusion, and this is a distinct possibility, then a hundred years from now we will be facing energy shortages, and relying mostly on nuclear fission power and some coal, while maximizing renewables which by themselves won't be nearly enough to supply all our energy needs. Every home and business will have solar panels. We will see more windmills, more hydroelectric, and more geothermal energy production.
Material science might solve the energy storage problem, but maybe not completely. We might also have to rely on synthetic fuels, because this may be the most efficient energy storage method.
Natural resources will become more strained and therefore more expensive. The world population will expand slightly, level off within decades from now, and then slowly decline as resources become more scarce.
People will find their behavior more tightly controlled, not just by the government, but also by other people. Surveillance will be everywhere, including in the home. Crime might become impossible to get away with, but personal freedom will suffer. I predict that there will be a backlash against this, and perhaps a political movement to protect privacy.
Movie theaters will disappear within decades. Movies will be more like video games, or video games will replace movies altogether, with the user participating in the story, possibly with multiple endings depending upon the choices the player makes. Realistic virtual reality should be possible, with many people spending most of their lives in virtual reality. Some stories could take weeks to finish.
More computer technology will be integrated into people, allowing them to experience augmented or virtual reality, and increase their access to information.
People might choose robotic pets, or even virtual ones, which could be made realistic but easier to care for. Robotic pets might have additional features, serving as crude household robots, in addition to the other household robots that people will most certainly have in a hundred years' time. Some people will have robotic friends which will provide emotional support almost as well as a person, if not better. And they will have relationships will robots.
"Reality" in the future is going to be much less real, with people spending much time in virtual worlds, having artificial companions, and experiencing the world through augmented senses.
Saturday, October 15, 2022
Futurist From 1922 Makes Weirdly Accurate Predictions For 2022
Saturday, October 8, 2022
Thursday, October 6, 2022
Electrical carbon capture
Begin forwarded message:
Subject: Electrical carbon capture
Wednesday, September 28, 2022
Tuesday, September 27, 2022
astrophysics - Is it possible that black holes are also neutron stars?
Saturday, September 17, 2022
Black Holes May Be Covered in Vortex Structures According to New Study
Anything that approaches infinity tends to be a problem scientifically and maybe mathematically. I have long suspected that matter might have a maximum density, making Black Holes not a point with infinite density but a tiny sphere. It seems plausible since our mathematics tends to break down when discussing singularities.
Perhaps Black Holes could spin so much, or have a high enough energy that these would counter the collapse? Maybe the time dilation becomes so great that it never becomes a point?
I am wondering if this is something that can be proved one way or the other using observations?
It might become 'solid' at the point where the gluons are pressed into the quarks, shoving all these particles into a TRUE solid, where the particles are totally crushed together and no space at all remains. I don't believe we could simulate that, because the energy required to compress quarks and gluons in such a way would be beyond our capacity to generate.
@Alondro77 We know that subatomic particles are fluctuations in Quantum Fields. Although we haven't defined a limit to the amount of energy that a Quantum Field can have at any particular point, it seems to me that there could be a limit where either it is not possible, or the field breaks, or it changes into something else.
I don't think that we know what the fields are made of and probably will never know, but there might be properties at higher energy levels or densities that we will never be able to test.
Friday, September 16, 2022
🔢 How to count to 10 in Latin
Thursday, September 15, 2022
Re: Watch "You're Immortal And I Can Prove It" on YouTube
A "Thoughty" video.
Sunday, September 4, 2022
Monday, August 29, 2022
Sunday, August 21, 2022
Effect of mRNA Vaccine Boosters against SARS-CoV-2 Omicron Infection in Qatar | NEJM
Study shows probability of getting COVID for mask wearers vs. non-mask wearers
Monday, August 15, 2022
A brief history of humanity
In the year 1800, about 90% of the United States population was needed to produce enough food through farming. In the early 1900s, it was about 35% and in the year 2000 it was 3%. Six decades ago when I was very young, farmers were held with some regard. These people worked the land to produce the food that we need. Today, farmers are considered rednecks. It is not too surprising that many early cartoons from almost a hundred years ago mostly took place on farms involving farm animals. In the 1960s there were many popular TV shows nostalgic for a more rural time, perhaps a simpler time compared to life in the big city, such as The Andy Griffith Show, Mayberry RFD, The Beverly Hillbillies, Green Acres, Petticoat Junction, and The Real McCoys. By 1972 all these shows were obsolete and canceled.
The Earth has been cooling down for about 50 million years. For at least 40 million years the atmospheric CO2 level has been in steady decline. The two go hand in hand since the temperature affects the vapor pressure of CO2 on the surface of the ocean. As it gets colder, the oceans absorb more CO2. Calcifying marine organisms learned to take calcium carbonate, which is made from calcium and CO2, and turn it into shells, which later get sequestered as limestone. This is where the CO2 has been going.
Climate change over the last 9 million years affected human evolution, forcing arboreal apes to come down from the trees and cross on foot the newly formed grasslands to find food. We entered the Pleistocene ice age about 2.5 million years ago which continues to the present because we still have ice at the poles. Also around 2.5 million years ago, in eastern Africa, a half-ape early human named Homo Habilis, meaning "Handy Man", learned how to make a stone hand ax. This remained the highest level of human technology until about 50,000 years ago. It is thought that early humans engaged in persistence hunting, where the human ability to sweat allowed them to chase an animal in the hot sun for a couple of hours until it collapsed from heat stroke. Then they could kill it with their stone ax and have a meal for their tribe. However, 50,000 years ago mass glaciation in Europe caused Africa to dry up. What was left of the human race was about 7,000 humans living on the southern coast of Africa. For the first time, they learned how to build permanent dwellings, much better tools and weapons, and how to fish. This was the beginning of the Upper Paeleolitch Period or the third stone age.
For about 90,000 years we had mass glaciation across the northern hemisphere. Due to changes in the Earth's orbit, in what are called the Malankovich Cycles, we get a warm period roughly every 100,000 years, and the last one started about 10,000 BC. We are currently in the year 12,022 in what some people call the Human Period. This was the beginning of the Neolithic Period or "new stone age." It is no coincidence that all of human civilization arose during this brief warm period. The Fertile Crescent, a region that follows the Nile River and extends over to Iraq, blossomed with grains even more so than today, and humans learned how to make use of those grains. Roughly 12,000 years ago humans learned how to make bread. Roughly 500 years later they learned how to make beer, and the world would be forever changed.
The Sumerian Kingdom, which started around 4100 BC in Iraq between the Tigres and Euphrates rivers, invented farming, although roughly about the same time that it got started along the Nile River. They also invented civilization, writing, clay pottery, and money. Although called a Kingdom, it was more like a collection of powerful city-states, which is how most power structures worked in the ancient world. They persisted for an amazing 2,400 years until they were overthrown in 1,700 B.C. by roaming nomads called the Amorites, who built a new powerful city-state called Babylon.
The era of the Pharaohs started around 3100 BC when the northern and southern kingdoms along the Nile were united by force. They would be conquered by Rome in 30 BC.
The Egyptians were expert beer makers, and beer was a regular part of their diet. The pyramids were built by workers who were paid in beer. For a day's labor, they were given a clay chip worth a gallon of beer. The chip could be exchanged for other goods.
Rome was founded in 753 BC, and it was such a powerful city-state that it would conquer most of Europe, but it would be conquered in 476 AD by the Barbarians, which were groups of Germanic tribes. This period is referred to as Ancient Antiquity, where Rome was the military power, but Greece was the intellectual center of the world.
Roman militarism was brutal, often killing or enslaving the people they conquered. Sometimes soldiers would be rewarded with land from the conquered territories because most people survived by farming. Around 146 BC, in the Third Punic War with Carthage, a city-state of a million people in ancient Tunesia, the Romans killed 750,000 people and burned the city to the ground.
The fall of the Roam Empire lead to the dark ages that lasted 900 years until the 1400s. The Christian religion dominated Europe and took a negative view of science. Much of the old manuscripts by the Greek Philosophers had been lost until some of them were rediscovered and printed thanks to the invention of the printing press. This helped lead to a more enlightened era.
During the middle ages, Italy continued to be a few powerful city-states constantly at war with each other. The country wasn't united until 1861.
Sunday, August 14, 2022
Saturday, August 6, 2022
Big Lion Teeth! AWESOME
Sunday, July 31, 2022
Saturday, July 30, 2022
Friday, July 29, 2022
Thursday, July 28, 2022
Wednesday, July 27, 2022
Monday, July 25, 2022
Tuesday, July 19, 2022
Saturday, July 16, 2022
Light up a Torch of Freedom | Cigarettes
Friday, July 15, 2022
How This Guy Made the World's Hottest Peppers | Obsessed
Thursday, July 14, 2022
Spinal cord repair
Tuesday, July 12, 2022
Monday, July 11, 2022
Watch "Science Proves What We Suspected Was True About Them" on YouTube
Science can be amazing !!!
Watch 4 min11 sec. video below until Google censorship takes it down.
From: John Coffey
Subject: Re: Watch "Science Proves What We Suspected Was True About Them" on YouTube
When I lived in Indianapolis from 1991 to 1992, I made friends with a chess player who was an extreme liberal, likely a Marxist. He said that he had a very permissive father whereas I had a very restrictive father. So I valued freedom and he valued government control.
On Fri, Jul 8, 2022 at 11:30 AM Albert wrote:
Scientist say a brain scan can reveal whether you are a liberal or a conservative. I'm not sure how they tell if you're a libertarian. Lol
Saturday, July 9, 2022
Thursday, July 7, 2022
What the BA.5 Subvariant Could Mean for the United States - The New York Times
The subvariant of Omicron known as BA.5 is now dominant, according to federal estimates released Tuesday, and together with BA.4, another subvariant, it is fueling an outbreak of cases and hospitalizations.
"I think there's an underappreciation of what it's going to do to the country, and it already is exerting its effect," said Eric Topol, a professor of molecular medicine at Scripps Research, who has written about the subvariant.
BA.5 and BA.4, both subvariants of the Omicron variant that swept the world during the winter, are the most capable versions of the virus yet at evading immunity from previous infections and vaccines. Both variants have mutations in their spike proteins that are different enough from earlier versions of the virus that they are able to dodge some antibodies.
Waves of infection — and the subsequent immunity that comes with them — vary across countries and make for imperfect comparisons. Vaccination rates also vary. But in places where BA.4 and BA.5 have been dominant for weeks or months, the subvariants have caused increases in cases and hospitalizations, despite some population immunity from previous waves
Wednesday, July 6, 2022
Science and human progress
Sunday, July 3, 2022
Saturday, July 2, 2022
Liquid Nitrogen Rockets 🚀🥶❄️
Saturday, June 25, 2022
Wednesday, June 22, 2022
Tuesday, June 21, 2022
What the HECK is Time?! (in Einstein’s Relativity)
March 4 2022 Moon Crash - view from different location
A few years ago an asteroid exploded over Russian with the force of a powerful nuclear weapon.
Saturday, June 18, 2022
The actual science of the "industrial seed oil" panic
Friday, June 17, 2022
Re: Why Stupid People Think They're Smart
A good video about why stupid people think they're smart. 42 here!
Monday, June 6, 2022
How to Protect Your Car From Ethanol Damage
Friday, June 3, 2022
Wednesday, June 1, 2022
Tuesday, May 31, 2022
Quantum Field Theory: What is a particle?
Saturday, May 28, 2022
Fwd: Calcium is crazy
I consume calcium carbonate on a regular basis. I did not know that calcium is a metal, but I did know that it is pretty reactive. So is sodium.
Friday, May 27, 2022
The lies about Covid vaccine keep co I got. I think there is no end to it.
From: John Coffey <email@example.com>
"The age-standardized IRR for cases in unvaccinated versus fully vaccinated persons was 13.9 during April–May and progressively declined to 8.7 during June, 5.1 during July–November, and 3.1 during December, coinciding with the periods of Delta emergence, Delta predominance, and Omicron emergence, respectively. This decline suggests a change in crude VE for infection from 93% during April–May, to 89% during June, 80% during July–November, and to 68% during December. Age-standardized IRRs for deaths among unvaccinated versus fully vaccinated persons were relatively stable; crude VE for deaths was 95% during April–May, 94% during June, and 94% during July–November.
Rates of COVID-19 cases were lowest among fully vaccinated persons with a booster dose, compared with fully vaccinated persons without a booster dose, and much lower than rates among unvaccinated persons during October–November (25.0, 87.7, and 347.8 per 100,000 population, respectively) and December 2021 (148.6, 254.8, and 725.6 per 100,000 population, respectively) (Table 2)."
Wednesday, May 25, 2022
What is Quantum Mechanics Really Trying to Tell us about Reality? Featuring @Sabine Hossenfelder
Sunday, May 22, 2022
Wednesday, May 18, 2022
Tuesday, May 17, 2022
Ramjet Propulsion and the Near Impossibility of Interstellar Travel
Monday, May 16, 2022
The dangers of the COVID-19 spike protein
"SARS-CoV-2 Spike Proteins Disrupt the Blood-Brain Barrier, Potentially Raising Risk of Neurological Damage in COVID-19 Patients"
"A lot of people think of it as a respiratory disease, but it's really a vascular disease," says Assistant Research Professor Uri Manor, who is co-senior author of the study. "That could explain why some people have strokes, and why some people have issues in other parts of the body. The commonality between them is that they all have vascular underpinnings."
"If you remove the replicating capabilities of the virus, it still has a major damaging effect on the vascular cells, simply by virtue of its ability to bind to this ACE2 receptor, the S protein receptor, now famous thanks to COVID,"
COVID-19 spike proteins may cause neurological issues
There is some previous evidence to suggest that following Covid-19 illness, the spike protein can remain in the bloodstream after the virus has gone and travel far from the site of infection. This research could help explain and ultimately treat some of the effects of severe Covid-19 infection, where levels of the virus are particularly high. "
Interestingly, it has been shown that HSV-1 spike protein binds to heparin and increases the aggregation of amyloid β (Aβ42) peptides on its surface spikes . This study suggests that the heparin-binding site of the spike protein might act as a binding site for Aβ42 peptides and thus could dock to the viral surface and catalyze aggregation of Aβ42. As the receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2, which is located within the S1 subunit of spike glycoprotein has several heparin binding sites [, , ], the same mechanism of aggregation of neurodegeneration causing proteins such as Aβ, α-synuclein, tau, prions, and TDP-43 can be observed in COVID-19 infection in the brain."
The vaccine spike protein is different.
US fact checking website Health Feedback, which uses experts to verify claims about health science, said Dr Bridle's statement "rests on the assumption that if the viral spike protein causes cardiovascular toxicity in COVID-19 patients, the spike protein produced in vaccinated people should be toxic as well".
However, Health Feedback said this assumption was incorrect: "While both mRNA vaccines and viral vector vaccines carry the instructions to produce the entire spike protein, the cells break down much of the protein into small fragments. Furthermore, unlike infection, the spike protein from COVID-19 vaccination doesn't get assembled into new viral particles."
"Vaccine skeptics have seized on the study to cast doubt on the safety of vaccines. But a review of the study's findings shows that the concerns raised by vaccine doubters are much ado about nothing.
The vascular endothelium is an important player in the illness and death associated with COVID-19. The endothelium is a system of cells that line and protect the inside of blood vessels. SARS-CoV2 injures the endothelium leading to blood clots, heart attack, pulmonary embolism, and stroke. Despite the established link between COVID-19 and these cardiovascular complications, the mechanism by which they develop is unknown.
Researchers from Jiaotong University; the University of California, San Diego; and the Salk Institute used a pseudovirus coated with spike protein to investigate the effects of the viral protein on endothelial cells. Pseudoviruses – which were first developed over 50 years ago – contain the outer shell of the virus, but they lack the viral genes needed to reproduce.
Hamsters treated with the spike protein coated pseudovirus showed lung damage similar to that seen in humans infected with SARS-CoV2. When researchers added pseudovirus to cultured endothelial cells they found that the mitochondria inside the cells were injured. Since mitochondria are responsible for providing energy to cells, their dysfunction can cause cell death.
When isolated pulmonary arteries were exposed to the spike protein carrying pseudovirus there was some disruption in the ability of the blood vessels to dilate. The decreased ability to expand blood vessels that serve the lungs could impair the ability of the body to take up oxygen from lungs that are damaged by the virus.
The novelty of this study was the discovery that the spike protein itself causes damage, and that the pathway triggered by the spike protein could explain the widespread cardiovascular complications that develop in COVID-19 patients.
A Twisted Tale
Shortly after Lei and colleagues published their study, vaccine skeptics touted the findings as proof that newly developed COVID-19 vaccines are dangerous. Afterall, if COVID-19 vaccines produce spike protein to trigger immunity, and that same spike protein causes injury, then vaccines are really no different than the disease they are designed to prevent.
The problem with these claims is that science doesn't support their arguments.
The Long Road to Perdition....
In order to damage the endothelium of blood vessels, COVID-19 vaccines have to enter the vascular system and infect cells that circulate in the blood. Data collected by the European Medicines Agency shows that no significant amount of vaccine enters the circulation (3). The confinement of the expressed spike protein away from the circulatory system significant prevents it from causing damage to the vascular endothelium.
Redesigning the Spike Protein
The spike protein attaches SARS-CoV2 to cells through a receptor called ACE2. In order to fully interact, the spike protein must undergo a conformational change.
A research team lead by Dr. Barney Graham from the Vaccine Research Center at the NIH National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases created an engineered form of the spike protein that is unable to make the shape change required to effectively bind to cells (5). The Pfizer/BioNTech, Moderna, Novavax, and Johnson & Johnson vaccines all use this inactivated spike protein, which means any spike protein that is produced by the vaccine is not able to be activated. This safety-switch limits the ability of the spike protein to bind ACE2 and limits its ability to cause damage.
Stuck in a Hole
In addition to engineering the spike protein so it can not be fully activated the protein is tagged with an extra piece called a "transmembrane anchor" (6). The transmembrane anchor allows the spike protein to appear on the surface – or membrane – of the cell, but it is held in place by the anchor. This prevents the spike protein from drifting away and creates a fixed target for the immune system to recognize the foreign protein."
So far, there is no scientific evidence available that suggests that spike proteins created in our bodies from the COVID-19 vaccines are toxic or damaging our organs. COVID-19 vaccines are relatively new and long-term side effects are yet to be known. However, the vaccines have met the safety standards of many government and international safety agencies.
Several systems help us monitor vaccine safety. In the United States these include the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), The Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD), the Post-License Rapid Immunization Safety Monitoring (PRISM), and the Clinical Immunization Safety Assessment Project (CISA). These systems are used by scientists to monitor side effects and any other patterns of risks from vaccines.
The COVID-19 vaccine has been administered to 135 million people in the United States. As expected with any vaccine, some fully vaccinated people still got sick, hospitalized, and/or died. These "breakthrough cases" are a very small percentage of those vaccinated (<0.001%) and are being studied to detect any relevant patterns.
So far no scientific evidence is available that gives credence to claims that spike proteins created from vaccines travel in our bloodstreams. Research shows that spike proteins stay stuck to the surface of the cells around the vaccine's injection site. They are not known to wander around to other parts of the body.
A very tiny dose of the vaccine does make it to the bloodstream (about 1%), but as soon as it gets to the liver, the enzymes there destroy it completely. The U.S. CDC refers to the spike protein made from the vaccine as "harmless."
There is no evidence that the spike protein in vaccines "is toxic or that it lingers at any toxic level in the body after vaccination," an FDA spokesperson told us in an email.
Jason McLellan, a structural biologist at the University of Texas at Austin who has been studying spike proteins in other coronaviruses for years and whose work was fundamental for the development of COVID-19 vaccines, said Bridle's statements are not correct.
"The spike protein is not pathogenic. It is not a toxin," McLellan told us in an email. "I have not seen any data to support what Bridle claims."
How long does the mRNA vaccine stay in the body?
However, a separate study recently published in the New England Journal of Medicine shows that heart inflammation events are far more likely after COVID-19 infection than vaccination."
"But because reinfection is possible and COVID-19 can cause severe medical complications, it's recommended that people who have already had COVID-19 get a COVID-19 vaccine. A recent study showed that unvaccinated people who already had COVID-19 are more than twice as likely as fully vaccinated people to be reinfected with COVID-19.
Recent research also suggests that people who got COVID-19 in 2020 and then received mRNA vaccines produce very high levels of antibodies that are likely effective against current and, possibly, future variants. Some scientists call this hybrid immunity."